اکثر مکاتبات کومش از طریق ایمیل سایت می باشد. لطفا Spam ایمیل خود را نیز چک نمایید.
   [صفحه اصلی ]   [Archive] [ English ]  
:: ::
:: جلد 24، شماره 4 - ( مرداد و شهریور 1401 ) ::
جلد 24 شماره 4 صفحات 433-421 برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها
اختلالات بویایی: تشخیص، ارزیابی و درمان
صلاح مرادی ، سید کامران کامروا ، مریم جالسی ، فاطمه یزدیان ، سارا سیمرغ ، محمد فرهادی ، رفیعه علیزاده*
چکیده:   (813 مشاهده)
حس بویایی یکی از حواس پنج‌گانه است که به انسان برای تشخیص انواع بوها کمک می‌کند. هم‌چنین نقش بسزایی در تشخیص هوای آلوده و گازهای سمی و یا غذاهای فاسد و خطرناک دارد. هر چند که اهمیت آن از سایر حس‌های پنج‌گانه کم‌تر است، اما اختلال در آن می‌تواند مشکلات زیادی، از جمله کاهش تشخیص مزه غذا به دلیل ارتباط حس چشایی و بویایی و هم‌چنین افسردگی و در کل کاهش کیفیت زندگی داشته باشد. هم‌چنین اختلال عملکرد بویایی یکی از اولین علائم بالینی بیماری‌های نورولوژیک مثل بیماری آلزایمر و بیماری پارکینسون است. اختلالات بویایی دلایل زیادی دارند که برخی از آن‌ها واضح‌تر از  بقیه می‌باشند. بیش‌تر افراد مبتلا به اختلالات بویایی، اخیراً یک بیماری یا صدمه فیزیکی را تجربه کرده‌اند. علل رایج اختلالات بویایی عبارت‌اند از: پیری، سینوزیت، عفونت‌های تنفسی فوقانی، آسیب به سر و تومورهای بینی و سینوس‌های اطراف بینی و مغز. بقیه موارد کم‌تر مورد توجه هستند. از آن‌جایی که درمان‌های محدودی برای اختلالات بویایی وجود دارد، انتشار اطلاعات در مورد خطرات مربوط به این اختلالات مورد نیاز است. این اطلاعات می‌توانند شامل اقدامات غربالگری عملی و مفید برای اختلال عملکرد بویایی، ارزیابی بالینی مناسب و مشاوره بیمار برای جلوگیری از آسیب و هم‌چنین مدیریت سلامت و افزایش سطح کیفیت زندگی با اختلال بویایی و معرفی درمان‌هایی با درصد بهبود بالاتر باشند. این مطالعه مروری بر علت‌شناسی، شیوع و پیامدهای کوتاه‌مدت و بلندمدت اختلالات بویایی تمرکز دارد. هم‌چنین استراتژی‌های تشخیص تدوین شده و گزینه‌های درمانی جدید ذکر و مورد بحث واقع شده است.  
واژه‌های کلیدی: بویایی، اختلال بویایی، کووید-19، آنوسمی
متن کامل [PDF 1300 kb]   (265 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: مروري | موضوع مقاله: مروري
دریافت: 1400/2/7 | پذیرش: 1400/11/16 | انتشار: 1401/5/28
فهرست منابع
1. [1] Kishida T. Olfaction of aquatic amniotes. Cell Tissue Res 2021; 1-13. [DOI:10.1007/s00441-020-03382-8] [PMID]
2. [2] Sell C. The mechanism of olfaction. chemistry and the sense of smell; sell, CS, Ed; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, USA. 2014. [DOI:10.1002/9781118522981]
3. [3] Lyons-Warren AM, Herman I, Hunt PJ, Arenkiel B. A systematic-review of olfactory deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders: from mouse to human. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021; 125: 110-121. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.02.024] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. [4] İşlek A, Balcı MK. Phantosmia with COVID-19 related olfactory dysfunction: report of nine case. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021; 1-3. [DOI:10.1007/s12070-021-02505-z] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. [5] Abolmaali ND, Hietschold V, Vogl TJ, Hüttenbrink KB, Hummel T. MR evaluation in patients with isolated anosmia since birth or early childhood. Am J Neuroradiol 2002; 23: 157-164
6. [6] Pellegrino R, Mainland JD, Kelly CE, Parker JK, Hummel T. Prevalence and correlates of parosmia and phantosmia among smell disorders. Chem Senses 2021; 46. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjab046] [PMID]
7. [7] Whitcroft K, Gunder N, Cuevas M, Andrews P, Menzel S, Haehner A, et al. Intranasal sodium citrate in quantitative and qualitative olfactory dysfunction: results from a prospective, controlled trial of prolonged use in 60 patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021; 278: 2891-2897. [DOI:10.1007/s00405-020-06567-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. [8] Leopold D. Distortion of olfactory perception: diagnosis and treatment. Chem Senses 2002; 27: 611-615. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/27.7.611] [PMID]
9. [9] Vennemann MM, Hummel T, Berger K. The association between smoking and smell and taste impairment in the general population. J Neurology 2008; 255: 1121-1126. [DOI:10.1007/s00415-008-0807-9] [PMID]
10. [10] Brämerson A, Johansson L, Ek L, Nordin S, Bende M. Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction: the Skövde population‐based study. Laryngoscope 2004; 114: 733-737. [DOI:10.1097/00005537-200404000-00026] [PMID]
11. [11] Murphy C, Schubert CR, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R, Nondahl DM. Prevalence of olfactory impairment in older adults. Jama 2002; 288: 2307-2312. [DOI:10.1001/jama.288.18.2307] [PMID]
12. [12] Croy I, Nordin S, Hummel T. Olfactory disorders and quality of life-an updated review. Chem Senses 2014; 39: 185-194. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjt072] [PMID]
13. [13] Croy I, Negoias S, Novakova L, Landis BN, Hummel T. Learning about the functions of the olfactory system from people without a sense of smell. PloS One 2012; 7: e33365. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033365] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. [14] Bojanowski V, Hummel T, Croy I. Isolated congenital anosmia--clinical and daily life aspects of a life without a sense of smell. Laryngorhinootologie 2013; 92: 30-33.
15. [15] Landis BN, Konnerth CG, Hummel T. A study on the frequency of olfactory dysfunction. Laryngoscope 2004; 114: 1764-1769. [DOI:10.1097/00005537-200410000-00017] [PMID]
16. [16] Nordin S, Brämerson A, Millqvist E, Bende M. Prevalence of parosmia: the Skövde population-based studies. Rhinology 2007; 45: 50-53.
17. [17] Zou L, Hummel T, Otte M, Bitter T, Besser G, Mueller C, et al. Association between olfactory function and quality of life in patients with olfactory disorders: a multicenter study in over 760 participants. Rhinology 2021; 59: 164-172. [DOI:10.4193/Rhin20.403] [PMID]
18. [18] Oleszkiewicz A, Park D, Resler K, Draf J, Schulze A, Zang Y, et al. Quality of life in patients with olfactory loss is better predicted by flavor identification than by orthonasal olfactory function. Chem Senses 2019; 44: 371-377. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjz027] [PMID]
19. [19] Boesveldt S, Parma V. The importance of the olfactory system in human well-being, through nutrition and social behavior. Cell Tissue Res 2021; 1-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00441-020-03367-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. [20] Arsalani N, Nobahar M, Ghorbani R, Kia NS, Etemadi M. Nutrition status and its relationship with depression in elderly pepople. Koomesh 2017; 401-411. (Persian).
21. [21] Miwa T, Furukawa M, Tsukatani T, Costanzo RM, DiNardo LJ, Reiter ER. Impact of olfactory impairment on quality of life and disability. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 127: 497-503. [DOI:10.1001/archotol.127.5.497] [PMID]
22. [22] Haxel B, Nisius A, Fruth K, Mann W, Muttray A. Deficits in medical counseling in olfactory dysfunction. HNO 2012; 60: 432-438. [DOI:10.1007/s00106-011-2448-z] [PMID]
23. [23] Blomqvist EH, Brämerson A, Stjärne P, Nordin S. Consequences of olfactory loss and adopted coping strategies. Rhinology 2004; 42: 189-194.
24. [24] Nordin S, Hedén Blomqvist E, Olsson P, Stjärne P, Ehnhage A, Group NS. Effects of smell loss on daily life and adopted coping strategies in patients with nasal polyposis with asthma. Acta Otolaryngol 2011; 131: 826-832. [DOI:10.3109/00016489.2010.539625] [PMID]
25. [25] Siegel JK, Kung SY, Wroblewski KE, Kern DW, McClintock MK, Pinto JM. Olfaction is associated with sexual motivation and satisfaction in older men and women. J Sexual Med 2021; 18: 295-302. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.12.002] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. [26] Temmel AF, Quint C, Schickinger-Fischer B, Klimek L, Stoller E, Hummel T. Characteristics of olfactory disorders in relation to major causes of olfactory loss. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002; 128: 635-641. [DOI:10.1001/archotol.128.6.635] [PMID]
27. [27] Chen B, Benzien C, Faria V, Ning Y, Cuevas M, Linke J, et al. Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Chemosensory Disorders. ORL 2021; 83: 135-143. [DOI:10.1159/000513751] [PMID]
28. [28] Getchell TV, Bartoshuk L, Doty RL, Snow JB. Smell and taste in health and disease: Raven Press 1991.
29. [29] Ferris AM, Duffy VB. Effect of olfactory deficits on nutritional status: does age predict persons at risk? Ann N Y Acad Sci 1989; 561: 113-123. [DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb20975.x] [PMID]
30. [30] Brämerson A, Nordin S, Bende M. Clinical experience with patients with olfactory complaints, and their quality of life. Acta OtoLaryngol 2007; 127: 74-167. [DOI:10.1080/00016480600801357] [PMID]
31. [31] Aschenbrenner K, Hummel C, Teszmer K, Krone F, Ishimaru T, Seo HS, et al. The influence of olfactory loss on dietary behaviors. Laryngoscope 2008; 118: 135-144. [DOI:10.1097/MLG.0b013e318155a4b9] [PMID]
32. [32] Jafek BW, Murrow B, Michaels R, Restrepo D, Linschoten M. Biopsies of human olfactory epithelium. Chem Senses 2002; 27: 623-628. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/27.7.623] [PMID]
33. [33] Eccles R. Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infect Dis 2005; 5: 718-725. [DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70270-X]
34. [34] Van Kempen M, Bachert C, Van Cauwenberge P. An update on the pathophysiology of rhinovirus upper respiratory tract infections. Rhinology 1999; 37: 97-103.
35. [35] Yamagishi M, Fujiwara M, Nakamura H. Olfactory mucosal findings and clinical course in patients with olfactory disorders following upper respiratory viral infection. Rhinology 1994; 32: 113-118.
36. [36] Moran DT, Jafek BW, Eller PM, Rowley III JC. Ultrastructural histopathology of human olfactory dysfunction. Microsc Res Tech 1992; 23: 103-110. [DOI:10.1002/jemt.1070230202] [PMID]
37. [37] Jafek B, Gordon A, Moran D, Eller P. Congenital anosmia. Ear Nose Throat J 1990; 69: 331-337.
38. [38] Mueller A, Rodewald A, Reden J, Gerber J, von Kummer R, Hummel T. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in post-traumatic and post-infectious olfactory dysfunction. Neuroreport 2005; 16: 475-478. [DOI:10.1097/00001756-200504040-00011] [PMID]
39. [39] Welge-Lüssen A, Wolfensberger M. Olfactory disorders following upper respiratory tract infections. Taste Smell 2006; 63: 125-132. [DOI:10.1159/000093758] [PMID]
40. [40] Wang LS, Wang YR, Ye DW, Liu QQ. A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 105948. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948] [PMID] [PMCID]
41. [41] Mirmohammadkhani M, Paknazar F, Rashidy-Pour A. Evaluation of the epidemiological pattern of COVID-19 applying basic reproduction number: an educational review article. Koomesh 2020; 22. (Persian). [DOI:10.29252/koomesh.22.3.373]
42. [42] Jaberi A. Psychological issues in children and youth during COVID-19 outbreak: A letter to Editor. Koomesh 2021; 23: 317-319. (Persian). [DOI:10.52547/koomesh.23.3.317]
43. [43] Bagheri SH, Asghari A, Farhadi M, Shamshiri AR, Kabir A, Kamrava SK, et al. Coincidence of COVID-19 epidemic and olfactory dysfunction outbreak in Iran. Med J Islamic Republic Iran 2020; 34: 62. (Persian). [DOI:10.47176/mjiri.34.62]
44. [44] Bagheri S, Asghari A, Farhadi M, Shamshiri AR, Kabir A, Kamrava S, et al. Coincidence of COVID-19 epidemic and olfactory dysfunction outbreak in Iran. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020; 34: 62. [DOI:10.47176/mjiri.34.62] [PMID] [PMCID]
45. [45] Parma V, Ohla K, Veldhuizen MG, Niv MY, Kelly CE, Bakke AJ, et al. More than smell-COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis. Chem Senses 2020; 45: 609-622. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjaa041] [PMID] [PMCID]
46. [46] Palmer K, Monaco A, Kivipelto M, Onder G, Maggi S, Michel J-P, et al. The potential long-term impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on patients with non-communicable diseases in Europe: consequences for healthy ageing. Aging clinical and experimental research. 2020;32(7):1189-94. [DOI:10.1007/s40520-020-01601-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
47. [47] Jiao L, Yang Y, Yu W, Zhao Y, Long H, Gao J, et al. The olfactory route is a potential way for SARS-CoV-2 to invade the central nervous system of rhesus monkeys. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021; 6: 1-11. [DOI:10.1038/s41392-021-00591-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
48. [48] Jalessi M, Barati M, Rohani M, Amini E, Ourang A, Azad Z, et al. Frequency and outcome of olfactory impairment and sinonasal involvement in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Neurol Sci 2020; 41: 2331-2338. [DOI:10.1007/s10072-020-04590-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
49. [49] Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Conti F, Bernacchia D, Siano M, Oreni L, et al. Self-reported olfactory and taste disorders in patients with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 infection: a cross-sectional study. Clin Infect Dis 2020; 71: 889-890. [DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa330] [PMID] [PMCID]
50. [50] Vaira LA, Salzano G, Deiana G, De Riu G. Anosmia and ageusia: common findings in COVID‐19 patients. Laryngoscope 2020. [DOI:10.1002/lary.28753]
51. [51] Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR, Horoi M, Le Bon SD, Rodriguez A, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020; 277: 2251-2261. [DOI:10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
52. [52] Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, Hu Y, Chen S, He Q, et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020; 77: 683-690. [DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127] [PMID] [PMCID]
53. [53] Yan CH, Faraji F, Prajapati DP, Boone CE, DeConde AS. Association of chemosensory dysfunction and Covid‐19 in patients presenting with influenza‐like symptoms. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020; 10: 806-813. [DOI:10.1002/alr.22579] [PMID] [PMCID]
54. [54] Bénézit F, Le Turnier P, Declerck C, Paillé C, Revest M, Dubée V, et al. Utility of hyposmia and hypogeusia for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20: 1014-1015. [DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30297-8]
55. [55] Klopfenstein T, Kadiane-Oussou N, Toko L, Royer PY, Lepiller Q, Gendrin V, et al. Features of anosmia in COVID-19. Med Mal Infect 2020; 50: 436-439. [DOI:10.1016/j.medmal.2020.04.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
56. [56] Moein ST, Hashemian SM, Mansourafshar B, Khorram‐Tousi A, Tabarsi P, Doty RL. Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID‐19. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020; 10: 944-950. [DOI:10.1002/alr.22587] [PMID] [PMCID]
57. [57] Kaye R, Chang CD, Kazahaya K, Brereton J, Denneny III JC. COVID-19 anosmia reporting tool: initial findings. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020; 163: 132-134. [DOI:10.1177/0194599820922992] [PMID]
58. [58] Beltrán‐Corbellini Á, Chico‐García JL, Martínez‐Poles J, Rodríguez‐Jorge F, Natera‐Villalba E, Gómez‐Corral J, et al. Acute‐onset smell and taste disorders in the context of COVID‐19: a pilot multicentre polymerase chain reaction based case-control study. Eur J Neurol 2020; 27: 1738-1741. https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.14359 [DOI:10.1111/ene.14273]
59. [59] Costanzo RM, DiNardo LJ, Reiter ER. Head injury and olfaction. InHandbook of olfaction and gustation 2003 Mar 27 (pp. 1108-1123). CRC Press. [DOI:10.1201/9780203911457-35]
60. [60] Kobayashi M, Costanzo RM. Olfactory nerve recovery following mild and severe injury and the efficacy of dexamethasone treatment. Chem Senses 2009; 34: 573-580. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjp038] [PMID] [PMCID]
61. [61] Doty RL, Yousem DM, Pham LT, Kreshak AA, Geckle R, Lee WW. Olfactory dysfunction in patients with head trauma. Arch Neurol 1997; 54: 1131-1140. [DOI:10.1001/archneur.1997.00550210061014] [PMID]
62. [62] IKEDA K, SAKURADA T, TAKASAKA T, OKITSU T, YOSHIDA S. Anosmia following head trauma: preliminary study of steroid treatment. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1995;177(4):343-51. [DOI:10.1620/tjem.177.343] [PMID]
63. [63] Limphaibool N, Iwanowski P, Kozubski W, Swidziński T, Frankowska A, Kamińska I, et al. Subjective and objective assessments of post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction. Front Neurol 2020; 11: 970. [DOI:10.3389/fneur.2020.00970] [PMID] [PMCID]
64. [64] Doty RL, Bromley SM. Effects of drugs on olfaction and taste. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2004; 37: 1229-1254. [DOI:10.1016/j.otc.2004.05.002] [PMID]
65. [65] Henkin R. Drug effects on smell and taste. Pharmacology in Medicine: Principles and Practice, eds Pradham SN, Maickel RP, Dutta SN Bethesda: SP Press Int. 1986; 748-753.
66. [66] Ackerman BH, Kasbekar N. Disturbances of taste and smell induced by drugs. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy 1997; 17: 482-496. [DOI:10.1002/j.1875-9114.1997.tb03058.x]
67. [67] Upadhyay UD, Holbrook EH. Olfactory loss as a result of toxic exposure. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2004; 37: 1185-1207. [DOI:10.1016/j.otc.2004.05.003] [PMID]
68. [68] Nakamura H, Nonomura N, Fujiwara M, Nakano Y. Olfactory disturbances caused by the anti-cancer drug tegafur. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1995; 252: 48-52. [DOI:10.1007/BF00171440] [PMID]
69. [69] Lim JH, Davis GE, Wang Z, Li V, Wu Y, Rue TC, et al. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue. PLoS One 2009; 4: e7647. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0007647] [PMID] [PMCID]
70. [70] Lötsch J, Daiker H, Hähner A, Ultsch A, Hummel T. Drug-target based cross-sectional analysis of olfactory drug effects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2015; 71: 461-471. [DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1814-2] [PMID]
71. [71] Murphy C, Doty R, Duncan H. Clinical disorders of olfaction. Neurol Dis Ther 2003; 57: 461-478.
72. [72] Ottaviano G, Cantone E, D'Errico A, Salvalaggio A, Citton V, Scarpa B, et al. Sniffin'Sticks and olfactory system imaging in patients with Kallmann syndrome. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015; 5: 855-861. [DOI:10.1002/alr.21550] [PMID]
73. [73] Murphy C, Cruickshanks KK, Klein R, Nondahl DM. Prevalence of olfactory impairment. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 2307-2312. [DOI:10.1001/jama.288.18.2307] [PMID]
74. [74] Attems J, Walker L, Jellinger KA. Olfaction and aging: a mini-review. Gerontology 2015; 61: 485-490. [DOI:10.1159/000381619] [PMID]
75. [75] Loo AT, Youngentob SL, Kent PF, Schwob JE. The aging olfactory epithelium: Neurogenesis, response to damage, and odorant‐induced activity. Int J Dev Neurosci 1996; 14: 881-900. [DOI:10.1016/S0736-5748(96)00046-9]
76. [76] Schubert CR, Cruickshanks KJ, Fischer ME, Huang G-H, Klein BEK, Klein R, et al. Olfactory impairment in an adult population: the beaver dam offspring study. Chem Senses 2011; 37: 325-334. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjr102] [PMID] [PMCID]
77. [77] Saltagi AK, Saltagi MZ, Nag AK, Wu AW, Higgins TS, Knisely A, et al. Diagnosis of anosmia and hyposmia: a systematic review. Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2021; 12: 21526567211026568. [DOI:10.1177/21526567211026568] [PMID] [PMCID]
78. [78] Bayram A, Cingi C, Rombaux P. Recent advances in olfactory dysfunction treatment and rehabilitation. Chall Rhinol 2021; 387-396. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-50899-9_38]
79. [79] Schäfer L, Schriever VA, Croy I. Human olfactory dysfunction: causes and consequences. Cell Tissue Res 2021; 1-11. [DOI:10.1007/s00441-020-03381-9] [PMID] [PMCID]
80. [80] Liu YH, Huang Z, Vaidya A, Li J, Curhan GC, Wu S, et al. A longitudinal study of altered taste and smell perception and change in blood pressure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018; 28: 877-883. [DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2018.05.002] [PMID] [PMCID]
81. [81] Blioskas S. Anosmia: Sensorineural. InRhinology and Anterior Skull Base Surgery 2021 (pp. 271-274). Springer, Cham. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-66865-5_57]
82. [82] Kayser J, Tenke CE, Kroppmann CJ, Alschuler DM, Ben-David S, Fekri S, et al. Olfaction in the psychosis prodrome: electrophysiological and behavioral measures of odor detection. Int J Psychophysiol 2013; 90: 190-206. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.07.003] [PMID] [PMCID]
83. [83] De Luca C, Cafalli M, Della Vecchia A, Gori S, Tessitore A, Silvestro M, et al. Olfaction in migraine and its psychiatric comorbidities: a narrative review.
84. [84] Hölscher T, Seibt A, Appold S, Dörr W, Herrmann T, Hüttenbrink KB, Hummel T. Effects of radiotherapy on olfactory function. Radiother Oncol 2005; 77: 157-163. [DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2005.09.015] [PMID]
85. [85] Maurage P, Callot C, Philippot P, Rombaux P, De Timary P. Chemosensory event-related potentials in alcoholism: A specific impairment for olfactory function. Biol Psychol 2011; 88: 28-36. [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.06.004] [PMID]
86. [86] Fjaeldstad AW, Ovesen T, Hummel T. The association between smoking on olfactory dysfunction in 3,900 patients with olfactory loss. Laryngoscope 2021; 131: E8-E13. [DOI:10.1002/lary.28552] [PMID]
87. [87] Saramago I, Franceschi AM. Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Top Magn Reson Imaging 2021; 30: 167-172. [DOI:10.1097/RMR.0000000000000271] [PMID]
88. [88] Rezaee Z, Marandi SM, Alaei H, Esfarjani F. Neuroprotective effects of endurance training in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease. Koomesh 2020; 22: 556-562. (Persian). [DOI:10.29252/koomesh.22.3.556]
89. [89] Welge-Lüssen A. Gestörte riech-und schmeckfunktionTherapieoptionen bei Riech-und Schmeckstörungen. Laryngorhinootologie 2005; 84: 92-105. [DOI:10.1055/s-2005-861129] [PMID]
90. [90] Miwa T, Ikeda K, Ishibashi T, Kobayashi M, Kondo K, Matsuwaki Y, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of olfactory dysfunction-secondary publication. Auris Nasus Larynx 2019; 46: 653-662. [DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2019.04.002] [PMID]
91. [91] Mann NM. Management of smell and taste problems. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2002 Apr 1;69(4):329-36. [DOI:10.3949/ccjm.69.4.329] [PMID]
92. [92] Hummel T, Landis BN, Hüttenbrink K. Dysfunction of the chemical senses smell and taste. Laryngorhinootologie 2011; 90: S44-55. [DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1270445] [PMID]
93. [93] Oleszkiewicz A, Alizadeh R, Altundag A, Chen B, Corrai A, Fanari R, et al. Global study of variability in olfactory sensitivity. Behav Neurosci 2020; 134: 394. [DOI:10.1037/bne0000378] [PMID]
94. [94] Doty RL, Shaman P, Dann M. Development of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a standardized microencapsulated test of olfactory function. Physiol Behav 1984; 32: 489-502. [DOI:10.1016/0031-9384(84)90269-5]
95. [95] Kamrava SK, Farhadi M, Jalessi M, Khosravian B, Pousti B, Hemami MR. University of Pennsylvania smell identification on Iranian population. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014; 16: e7926. [DOI:10.5812/ircmj.7926] [PMID] [PMCID]
96. [96] Fjaeldstad A, Kjaergaard T, Van Hartevelt T, Moeller A, Kringelbach M, Ovesen T. Olfactory screening: validation of Sniffin'Sticks in Denmark. Clin Otolaryngol 2015; 40: 545-550. [DOI:10.1111/coa.12405] [PMID]
97. [97] Sorokowska A, Albrecht E, Haehner A, Hummel T. Extended version of the "Sniffin'Sticks" identification test: Test-retest reliability and validity. J Neurosci Methods 2015; 243: 111-114. [DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.01.034] [PMID]
98. [98] Zou L, Dworschak A, Alizadeh R, Kamrava S, Alwashahi M, Bock M, et al. " U-Sniff"-the international odor identification test for children: an extension of its normative database and study of global reliability. Rhinology 2020; 58: 471-476. [DOI:10.4193/Rhin19.355] [PMID]
99. [99] Jalessi M, Kamrava SK, Amini E, Rafiei F, Nasouti MA, Moosavi N, et al. Is the Persian version of the "Olfactory Disorder Questionnaire" reliable and valid? Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2017; 29: 209.
100. [100] Kamrava SK, Jalessi M, Ghalehbaghi S, Amini E, Alizadeh R, Rafiei F, et al. Validity and reliability of Persian smell identification test. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2020; 32: 65.
101. [101] Kamrava SK, Hosseini SF, Farhadi M, Jalessi M, Talebi A, Amini E, et al. Cultural adaptation of the Iranian version of the "Sniffin'Sticks" olfactory test. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021; 35: 1141-1148. [DOI:10.47176/mjiri.35.153] [PMID] [PMCID]
102. [102] Duprez TP, Rombaux P. Imaging the olfactory tract (cranial nerve# 1). Eur J Radiol 2010; 74: 288-298. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.05.065] [PMID]
103. [103] Yousem DM, Oguz KK, Li C. Imaging of the olfactory system. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2001; 22: 456-472. [DOI:10.1016/S0887-2171(01)90001-0]
104. [104] Wrobel BB, Leopold DA. Smell and taste disorders. Fac Plast Surg Clin 2004; 12: 459-468. [DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2004.04.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
105. [105] Doty RL. Treatments for smell and taste disorders: a critical review. Handb Clin Neurol 2019; 164: 455-479. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-63855-7.00025-3] [PMID]
106. [106] Stuck B, Blum A, Hagner A, Hummel T, Klimek L, Hörmann K. ALLERGY Net. Allergy 2003; 58: 1195-1216. [DOI:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2003.00162.x] [PMID]
107. [107] Fong KJ, Kern RC, Foster JD, Zhao JC, Pitovski DZ. Olfactory secretion and sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase: Regulation by corticosteroids. Laryngoscope 1999; 109: 383-388. [DOI:10.1097/00005537-199903000-00008] [PMID]
108. [108] Yuan F, Huang T, Wei Y, Wu D. Steroids and olfactory training for postviral olfactory dysfunction: a systematic review. Front Neurosci 2021; 15. [DOI:10.3389/fnins.2021.708510] [PMID] [PMCID]
109. [109] Stevens MJ, Obrosova I, Cao X, Van Huysen C, Greene DA. Effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on peripheral nerve conduction, blood flow, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2000; 49: 1006-1015. [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.49.6.1006] [PMID]
110. [110] Hummel T, Heilmann S, Hüttenbriuk KB. Lipoic acid in the treatment of smell dysfunction following viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Laryngoscope 2002; 112: 2076-2080. [DOI:10.1097/00005537-200211000-00031] [PMID]
111. [111] Halyard MY. Taste and smell alterations in cancer patients-real problems with few solutions. J Support Oncol 2009; 7: 68-69.
112. [112] Henkin RI. Decreased parotid saliva gustin/carbonic anhydrase VI secretion: an enzyme disorder manifested by gustatory and olfactory dysfunction. Am J Med Sci 1999; 318: 380-391. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000441-199912000-00005 [DOI:10.1016/S0002-9629(15)40663-9] [PMID]
113. [113] Abdelmaksoud AA, Ghweil AA, Hassan MH, Rashad A, Khodeary A, Aref ZF, et al. Olfactory disturbances as presenting manifestation among egyptian patients with COVID-19: possible role of zinc. Biol Trace Elem Res 2021; 199: 1-8. [DOI:10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5] [PMID] [PMCID]
114. [114] Yee KK, Pribitkin EA, Cowart BJ, Vainius AA, Klock CT, Rosen D, et al. Neuropathology of the olfactory mucosa in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2010; 24: 110-120. [DOI:10.2500/ajra.2010.24.3435] [PMID] [PMCID]
115. [115] Rimmer J, Fokkens W, Chong LY, Hopkins C. Surgical versus medical interventions for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014. [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD006991.pub2]
116. [116] Nguyen DT, Bey A, Arous F, Nguyen‐Thi PL, Felix‐Ravelo M, Jankowski R. Can surgeons predict the olfactory outcomes after endoscopic surgery for nasal polyposis? Laryngoscope 2015; 125: 1535-1540. [DOI:10.1002/lary.25223] [PMID]
117. [117] Soler ZM, Sauer DA, Mace JC, Smith TL. Ethmoid histopathology does not predict olfactory outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2010; 24: 281-285. [DOI:10.2500/ajra.2010.24.3477] [PMID] [PMCID]
118. [118] Göktas O, Lau L, Fleiner F. Effect of laser treatment on olfactory dysfunction. Effect of laser treatment on olfactory dysfunction. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014; 66: 173-179. [DOI:10.1007/s12070-011-0413-5] [PMID] [PMCID]
119. [119] Alizadeh R, Kamrava SK, Bagher Z, Farhadi M, Falah M, Moradi F, et al. Human olfactory stem cells: As a promising source of dopaminergic neuron-like cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett 2019; 696: 52-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2018.12.011] [PMID]
120. [120] Alizadeh R, Bagher Z, Kamrava SK, Falah M, Hamidabadi HG, Boroujeni ME, et al. Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to dopaminergic neurons: A comparison between Wharton's Jelly and olfactory mucosa as sources of MSCs. J Chem Neuroanat 2019; 96: 126-133. [DOI:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2019.01.003] [PMID]
121. [121] Alizadeh R, Hassanzadeh G, Joghataei MT, Soleimani M, Moradi F, Mohammadpour S, et al. In vitro differentiation of neural stem cells derived from human olfactory bulb into dopaminergic‐like neurons. Eur J Neurosci 2017; 45: 773-784. [DOI:10.1111/ejn.13504] [PMID]
122. [122] Costanzo RM. Regeneration and rewiring the olfactory bulb. Chem Senses 2005; 30: i133-i134. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjh150] [PMID] [PMCID]
123. [123] Beites CL, Kawauchi S, Crocker CE, Calof AL. Identification and molecular regulation of neural stem cells in the olfactory epithelium. Exp Cell Res 2005; 306: 309-316. [DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.03.027] [PMID]
124. [124] Salah Moradi, Rafieh Alizadeh, Fatemeh Yazdian, Mohammad Farhadi, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Sara Simorgh. A TGF-α and TGF-β1 Poloxamer-based micelle/hydrogel composite: A promising novel candidate for the treatment of anosmia. Biotechnology progress. In press 2022. [DOI:10.1002/btpr.3294]
125. [125] Clevenger AC, Salcedo E, Jones KR, Restrepo D. BDNF promoter-mediated β-galactosidase expression in the olfactory epithelium and bulb. Chem Senses 2008; 33: 531-539. [DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjn021] [PMID] [PMCID]
126. [126] Mackay-Sim A. Stem cells and their niche in the adult olfactory mucosa. Arch Ital Biol 2010; 148: 47-58.
127. [127] Farhadi M, Boroujeni ME, Kamrava SK, Bagher Z, Tehrani AM, Aghajanpour F, et al. Implantation of human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells restores locomotion in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. J Chem Neuroanat 2021; 114: 101961. [DOI:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.101961] [PMID]
128. [128] Simorgh S, Alizadeh R, Shabani R, Karimzadeh F, Seidkhani E, Majidpoor J, et al. Olfactory mucosa stem cells delivery via nasal route: a simple way for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurotox Res 2021; 39: 598-608. [DOI:10.1007/s12640-020-00290-1] [PMID]
129. [129] Lee CH, Jeon SW, Seo BS, Mo JH, Jeon EH, Choi AR, et al. Transplantation of neural stem cells in anosmic mice. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2010; 3: 84. [DOI:10.3342/ceo.2010.3.2.84] [PMID] [PMCID]
130. [130] Simorgh S, Bagher Z, Farhadi M, Kamrava SK, Boroujeni ME, Namjoo Z, et al. Magnetic targeting of human olfactory mucosa stem cells following intranasal administration: a novel approach to Parkinson's disease treatment. Mol Neurobiol 2021; 1-13. [DOI:10.1007/s12035-021-02392-z] [PMID]
131. [131] Choe G, Park J, Park H, Lee JY. Hydrogel biomaterials for stem cell microencapsulation. Polymers 2018; 10: 997. [DOI:10.3390/polym10090997] [PMID] [PMCID]
132. [132] Liu DT, Sabha M, Damm M, Philpott C, Oleszkiewicz A, Hähner A, et al. Parosmia is associated with relevant olfactory recovery after olfactory training. Laryngoscope 2021; 131: 618-623. [DOI:10.1002/lary.29277] [PMID]
133. [133] Kattar N, Do TM, Unis GD, Migneron MR, Thomas AJ, McCoul ED. Olfactory training for postviral olfactory dysfunction: systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020; 0194599820943550. [DOI:10.1177/0194599820943550] [PMID]
134. [134] Tremblay C, Mei J, Frasnelli J. Olfactory bulb surroundings can help to distinguish Parkinson's disease from non-parkinsonian olfactory dysfunction. Neuroimage Clin 2020; 28: 102457. [DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102457] [PMID] [PMCID]
135. [135] Hummel T, Rissom K, Reden J, Hähner A, Weidenbecher M, Hüttenbrink KB. Effects of olfactory training in patients with olfactory loss. Laryngoscope 2009; 119: 496-499. [DOI:10.1002/lary.20101] [PMID]
136. [136] Liu DT, Sabha M, Damm M, Philpott C, Oleszkiewicz A, Hähner A, et al. Parosmia is associated with relevant olfactory recovery after olfactory training. Laryngoscope 2020; 131: 618-623. [DOI:10.1002/lary.29277] [PMID]
ارسال پیام به نویسنده مسئول

ارسال نظر درباره این مقاله
نام کاربری یا پست الکترونیک شما:

CAPTCHA


XML   English Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Moradi S, Kamrava S K, Jalessi M, Yazdian F, Simorgh S, Farhadi M et al . Olfactory disorders: Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Koomesh 2022; 24 (4) :421-433
URL: http://koomeshjournal.semums.ac.ir/article-1-7013-fa.html

مرادی صلاح، کامروا سید کامران، جالسی مریم، یزدیان فاطمه، سیمرغ سارا، فرهادی محمد و همکاران.. اختلالات بویایی: تشخیص، ارزیابی و درمان. كومش 1401; 24 (4) :433-421

URL: http://koomeshjournal.semums.ac.ir/article-1-7013-fa.html



بازنشر اطلاعات
Creative Commons License این مقاله تحت شرایط Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License قابل بازنشر است.
جلد 24، شماره 4 - ( مرداد و شهریور 1401 ) برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها
کومش Koomesh
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4540